PostgreSQL data source
Grafana ships with a built-in PostgreSQL data source plugin that allows you to query and visualize data from a PostgreSQL compatible database.
For instructions on how to add a data source to Grafana, refer to the administration documentation. Only users with the organization administrator role can add data sources. Administrators can also configure the data source via YAML with Grafana’s provisioning system.
To configure basic settings for the data source, complete the following steps:
Click Connections in the left-side menu.
Under Your connections, click Data sources.
PostgreSQLin the search bar.
The Settings tab of the data source is displayed.
Set the data source’s basic configuration options:
|Name||The data source name. This is how you refer to the data source in panels and queries.|
|Default||Default data source means that it will be pre-selected for new panels.|
|Host||The IP address/hostname and optional port of your PostgreSQL instance. Do not include the database name. The connection string for connecting to Postgres will not be correct and it may cause errors.|
|Database||Name of your PostgreSQL database.|
|User||Database user’s login/username|
|Password||Database user’s password|
|SSL Mode||Determines whether or with what priority a secure SSL TCP/IP connection will be negotiated with the server. When SSL Mode is disabled, SSL Method and Auth Details would not be visible.|
|SSL Auth Details Method||Determines whether the SSL Auth details will be configured as a file path or file content. Grafana v7.5+|
|SSL Auth Details Value||File path or file content of SSL root certificate, client certificate and client key|
|Max open||The maximum number of open connections to the database, default |
|Max idle||The maximum number of connections in the idle connection pool, default |
|Auto (max idle)||If set will set the maximum number of idle connections to the number of maximum open connections (Grafana v9.5.1+). Default is |
|Max lifetime||The maximum amount of time in seconds a connection may be reused, default |
|Version||Determines which functions are available in the query builder (only available in Grafana 5.3+).|
|TimescaleDB||A time-series database built as a PostgreSQL extension. When enabled, Grafana uses |
Min time interval
A lower limit for the
Recommended to be set to write frequency, for example
1m if your data is written every minute.
This option can also be overridden/configured in a dashboard panel under data source options. It’s important to note that this value needs to be formatted as a
number followed by a valid time identifier, e.g.
1m (1 minute) or
30s (30 seconds). The following time identifiers are supported:
Database user permissions (Important!)
The database user you specify when you add the data source should only be granted SELECT permissions on
the specified database and tables you want to query. Grafana does not validate that the query is safe. The query
could include any SQL statement. For example, statements like
DELETE FROM user; and
DROP TABLE user; would be
executed. To protect against this we highly recommend you create a specific PostgreSQL user with restricted permissions.
CREATE USER grafanareader WITH PASSWORD 'password'; GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA schema TO grafanareader; GRANT SELECT ON schema.table TO grafanareader;
Make sure the user does not get any unwanted privileges from the public role.
The PostgreSQL query builder is available when editing a panel using a PostgreSQL data source. The built query can be run by pressing the
Run query button in the top right corner of the editor.
The response from PostgreSQL can be formatted as either a table or as a time series. To use the time series format one of the columns must be named
Dataset and table selection
The dataset dropdown will be populated with the configured database to which the user has access. The table dropdown is populated with the tables that are available within that database.
Columns and Aggregation functions (SELECT)
Using the dropdown, select a column to include in the data. You can also specify an optional aggregation function.
Add further value columns by clicking the plus button and another column dropdown appears.
Filter data (WHERE)
To add a filter, flip the switch at the top of the editor. Using the first dropdown, select if all the filters need to match (AND) or if only one of the filters needs to match (OR).
To add more columns to filter on use the plus button.
To group the results by column, flip the group switch at the top of the editor. You can then choose which column to group the results by. The group by clause can be removed by pressing the X button.
By flipping the preview switch at the top of the editor, you can get a preview of the SQL query generated by the query builder.
Provision the data source
It’s now possible to configure data sources using config files with Grafana’s provisioning system. You can read more about how it works and all the settings you can set for data sources on the provisioning docs page.
apiVersion: 1 datasources: - name: Postgres type: postgres url: localhost:5432 user: grafana secureJsonData: password: 'Password!' jsonData: database: grafana sslmode: 'disable' # disable/require/verify-ca/verify-full maxOpenConns: 100 # Grafana v5.4+ maxIdleConns: 100 # Grafana v5.4+ maxIdleConnsAuto: true # Grafana v9.5.1+ connMaxLifetime: 14400 # Grafana v5.4+ postgresVersion: 903 # 903=9.3, 904=9.4, 905=9.5, 906=9.6, 1000=10 timescaledb: false
Note: In the above code, the
10refers to version PostgreSQL 10 and above.
If you encounter metric request errors or other issues:
- Make sure your data source YAML file parameters exactly match the example. This includes parameter names and use of quotation marks.
- Make sure the
databasename is not included in the
To make advanced queries, switch to the code editor by clicking
code in the top right corner of the editor. The code editor support autocompletion of tables, columns, SQL keywords, standard sql functions, Grafana template variables and Grafana macros. Columns cannot be completed before a table has been specified.
You can expand the code editor by pressing the
chevron pointing downwards in the lower right corner of the code editor.
CTRL/CMD + Return works as a keyboard shortcut to run the query.
Macros can be used within a query to simplify syntax and allow for dynamic parts.
|Will be replaced by an expression to convert to a UNIX timestamp and rename the column to |
|Will be replaced by an expression to convert to a UNIX timestamp and rename the column to |
|Will be replaced by a time range filter using the specified column name. For example, dateColumn BETWEEN FROM_UNIXTIME(1494410783) AND FROM_UNIXTIME(1494410983)|
|Will be replaced by the start of the currently active time selection. For example, FROM_UNIXTIME(1494410783)|
|Will be replaced by the end of the currently active time selection. For example, FROM_UNIXTIME(1494410983)|
|Will be replaced by an expression usable in GROUP BY clause. For example, *cast(cast(UNIX_TIMESTAMP(dateColumn)/(300) as signed)*300 as signed),*|
|Same as above but with a fill parameter so missing points in that series will be added by grafana and 0 will be used as value.|
|Same as above but NULL will be used as value for missing points.|
|Same as above but the previous value in that series will be used as fill value if no value has been seen yet NULL will be used (only available in Grafana 5.3+).|
|Will be replaced identical to $__timeGroup but with an added column alias (only available in Grafana 5.3+).|
|Will be replaced by a time range filter using the specified column name with times represented as Unix timestamp. For example, dateColumn > 1494410783 AND dateColumn < 1494497183|
|Will be replaced by the start of the currently active time selection as Unix timestamp. For example, 1494410783|
|Will be replaced by the end of the currently active time selection as Unix timestamp. For example, 1494497183|
|Will be replaced by a time range filter using the specified column name with times represented as nanosecond timestamp. For example, dateColumn > 1494410783152415214 AND dateColumn < 1494497183142514872|
|Will be replaced by the start of the currently active time selection as nanosecond timestamp. For example, 1494410783152415214|
|Will be replaced by the end of the currently active time selection as nanosecond timestamp. For example, 1494497183142514872|
|Same as $__timeGroup but for times stored as Unix timestamp (only available in Grafana 5.3+).|
|Same as above but also adds a column alias (only available in Grafana 5.3+).|
We plan to add many more macros. If you have suggestions for what macros you would like to see, please open an issue in our GitHub repo.
Format as query option is set to
Table then you can basically do any type of SQL query. The table panel will automatically show the results of whatever columns and rows your query returns.
Query editor with example query:
SELECT title as "Title", "user".login as "Created By", dashboard.created as "Created On" FROM dashboard INNER JOIN "user" on "user".id = dashboard.created_by WHERE $__timeFilter(dashboard.created)
You can control the name of the Table panel columns by using regular
as SQL column selection syntax.
The resulting table panel:
Time series queries
If you set Format as to Time series, then the query must have a column named time that returns either a SQL datetime or any numeric datatype representing Unix epoch in seconds. In addition, result sets of time series queries must be sorted by time for panels to properly visualize the result.
A time series query result is returned in a wide data frame format. Any column except time or of type string transforms into value fields in the data frame query result. Any string column transforms into field labels in the data frame query result.
For backward compatibility, there’s an exception to the above rule for queries that return three columns including a string column named metric. Instead of transforming the metric column into field labels, it becomes the field name, and then the series name is formatted as the value of the metric column. See the example with the metric column below.
To optionally customize the default series name formatting, refer to Standard options definitions.
SELECT $__timeGroupAlias("time_date_time",'5m'), min("value_double"), 'min' as metric FROM test_data WHERE $__timeFilter("time_date_time") GROUP BY time ORDER BY time
Data frame result:
+---------------------+-----------------+ | Name: time | Name: min | | Labels: | Labels: | | Type: time.Time | Type: float64 | +---------------------+-----------------+ | 2020-01-02 03:05:00 | 3 | | 2020-01-02 03:10:00 | 6 | +---------------------+-----------------+
Example using the fill parameter in the $__timeGroupAlias macro to convert null values to be zero instead:
SELECT $__timeGroupAlias("createdAt",'5m',0), sum(value) as value, hostname FROM test_data WHERE $__timeFilter("createdAt") GROUP BY time, hostname ORDER BY time
Given the data frame result in the following example and using the graph panel, you will get two series named value 10.0.1.1 and value 10.0.1.2. To render the series with a name of 10.0.1.1 and 10.0.1.2 , use a Standard options definitions display value of
Data frame result:
+---------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+ | Name: time | Name: value | Name: value | | Labels: | Labels: hostname=10.0.1.1 | Labels: hostname=10.0.1.2 | | Type: time.Time | Type: float64 | Type: float64 | +---------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+ | 2020-01-02 03:05:00 | 3 | 4 | | 2020-01-02 03:10:00 | 6 | 7 | +---------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
Example with multiple columns:
SELECT $__timeGroupAlias("time_date_time",'5m'), min("value_double") as "min_value", max("value_double") as "max_value" FROM test_data WHERE $__timeFilter("time_date_time") GROUP BY time ORDER BY time
Data frame result:
+---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+ | Name: time | Name: min_value | Name: max_value | | Labels: | Labels: | Labels: | | Type: time.Time | Type: float64 | Type: float64 | +---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+ | 2020-01-02 03:04:00 | 3 | 4 | | 2020-01-02 03:05:00 | 6 | 7 | +---------------------+-----------------+-----------------+
Instead of hard-coding things like server, application and sensor name in your metric queries you can use variables in their place. Variables are shown as dropdown select boxes at the top of the dashboard. These dropdowns make it easy to change the data being displayed in your dashboard.
Refer to Templates and variables for an introduction to the templating feature and the different types of template variables.
If you add a template variable of the type
Query, you can write a PostgreSQL query that can
return things like measurement names, key names or key values that are shown as a dropdown select box.
For example, you can have a variable that contains all values for the
hostname column in a table if you specify a query like this in the templating variable Query setting.
SELECT hostname FROM host
A query can return multiple columns and Grafana will automatically create a list from them. For example, the query below will return a list with values from
SELECT host.hostname, other_host.hostname2 FROM host JOIN other_host ON host.city = other_host.city
To use time range dependent macros like
$__timeFilter(column) in your query the refresh mode of the template variable needs to be set to On Time Range Change.
SELECT event_name FROM event_log WHERE $__timeFilter(time_column)
Another option is a query that can create a key/value variable. The query should return two columns that are named
__text column value should be unique (if it is not unique then the first value is used). The options in the dropdown will have a text and value that allows you to have a friendly name as text and an id as the value. An example query with
hostname as the text and
id as the value:
SELECT hostname AS __text, id AS __value FROM host
You can also create nested variables. Using a variable named
region, you could have
the hosts variable only show hosts from the current selected region with a query like this (if
region is a multi-value variable then use the
IN comparison operator rather than
= to match against multiple values):
SELECT hostname FROM host WHERE region IN($region)
__searchFilter to filter results in Query Variable
Available from Grafana 6.5 and above
__searchFilter in the query field will filter the query result based on what the user types in the dropdown select box.
When nothing has been entered by the user the default value for
Important that you surround the
__searchFilterexpression with quotes as Grafana does not do this for you.
The example below shows how to use
__searchFilter as part of the query field to enable searching for
hostname while the user types in the dropdown select box.
SELECT hostname FROM my_host WHERE hostname LIKE '$__searchFilter'
Using Variables in Queries
From Grafana 4.3.0 to 4.6.0, template variables are always quoted automatically. If your template variables are strings, do not wrap them in quotes in where clauses.
From Grafana 4.7.0, template variable values are only quoted when the template variable is a
If the variable is a multi-value variable then use the
IN comparison operator rather than
= to match against multiple values.
There are two syntaxes:
$<varname> Example with a template variable named
SELECT atimestamp as time, aint as value FROM table WHERE $__timeFilter(atimestamp) and hostname in($hostname) ORDER BY atimestamp ASC
[[varname]] Example with a template variable named
SELECT atimestamp as time, aint as value FROM table WHERE $__timeFilter(atimestamp) and hostname in([[hostname]]) ORDER BY atimestamp ASC
Disabling quoting for multi-value variables
Grafana automatically creates a quoted, comma-separated string for multi-value variables. For example: if
server02 are selected then it will be formatted as:
'server01', 'server02'. To disable quoting, use the csv formatting option for variables:
Read more about variable formatting options in the Variables documentation.
Annotations allow you to overlay rich event information on top of graphs. You add annotation queries via the Dashboard menu / Annotations view.
Example query using time column with epoch values:
SELECT epoch_time as time, metric1 as text, concat_ws(', ', metric1::text, metric2::text) as tags FROM public.test_data WHERE $__unixEpochFilter(epoch_time)
Example region query using time and timeend columns with epoch values:
Only available in Grafana v6.6+.
SELECT epoch_time as time, epoch_time_end as timeend, metric1 as text, concat_ws(', ', metric1::text, metric2::text) as tags FROM public.test_data WHERE $__unixEpochFilter(epoch_time)
Example query using time column of native SQL date/time data type:
SELECT native_date_time as time, metric1 as text, concat_ws(', ', metric1::text, metric2::text) as tags FROM public.test_data WHERE $__timeFilter(native_date_time)
|The name of the date/time field. Could be a column with a native SQL date/time data type or epoch value.|
|Optional name of the end date/time field. Could be a column with a native SQL date/time data type or epoch value. (Grafana v6.6+)|
|Event description field.|
|Optional field name to use for event tags as a comma separated string.|
Time series queries should work in alerting conditions. Table formatted queries are not yet supported in alert rule conditions.