The polling cycle is controlled by a number of configuration options detailed here.

        # How often to repoll the backend for new blocks. Default is 5m
        [blocklist_poll: <duration>] 

        # Number of blocks to process in parallel during polling. Default is 50.
        [blocklist_poll_concurrency: <int>]

        # By default components will pull the blocklist from the tenant index. If that fails the component can
        # fallback to scanning the entire bucket. Set to false to disable this behavior. Default is true.
        [blocklist_poll_fallback: <bool>]

        # Maximum number of compactors that should build the tenant index. All other components will download 
        # the index.  Default 2.
        [blocklist_poll_tenant_index_builders: <int>]

        # The oldest allowable tenant index. If an index is pulled that is older than this duration,
        # the polling will consider this an error. Note that `blocklist_poll_fallback` applies here.
        # If fallback is true and a tenant index exceeds this duration, it will fall back to listing
        # the bucket contents.
        # Default 0 (disabled).
        [blocklist_poll_stale_tenant_index: <duration>]

Due to the mechanics of the tenant index, the blocklist will be stale by at most 2 times the configured blocklist_poll duration. There are two configuration options that need to be balanced against the blockist_poll to handle this:

The ingester complete_block_timeout is used to hold a block in the ingester for a given period of time after it has been flushed. This allows the ingester to return traces to the queriers while they are still unaware of the newly flushed blocks.

  # How long to hold a complete block in the ingester after it has been flushed to the backend.  Default is 15m
  [complete_block_timeout: <duration>]

The compactor compacted_block_retention is used to keep a block in the backend for a given period of time after it has been compacted and the data is no longer needed. This allows queriers with a stale blocklist to access these blocks successfully until they complete their polling cycles and have up to date blocklists. Like the complete_block_timeout, this should be at a minimum 2x the configured blocklist_poll duration.

    # How long to leave a block in the backend after it has been compacted successfully.  Default is 1h
    [compacted_block_retention: <duration>]

Additionally, the querier blocklist_poll duration needs to be greater than or equal to the compactor blocklist_poll duration. Otherwise, a querier may not correctly check all assigned blocks and incorrectly return 404. It is recommended to simply set both components to use the same poll duration.